5 Components of Physical Fitness


Physical fitness is that the ability to function effectively throughout your workday, perform your usual other activities and still have enough energy left over to handle any extra stresses or emergencies which can arise.

The components of fitness are:

  • Cardiorespiratory (CR) endurance – the efficiency with which the body delivers oxygen and nutrients needed for muscular activity and transports waste products from the cells.
  • Muscular strength – the best amount of force a muscle or muscle group can exert during a single effort.
  • Muscular endurance – the power of a muscle or muscle group to perform repeated movements with a sub-maximal force for extended periods of time.
  • Flexibility – the power to maneuver the joints or any group of joints through a whole, normal range of motion.
  • Body composition – the share of body fat an individual has as compared to his or her total body mass.

Improving the primary three components of fitness listed above will have a positive impact on body composition and can end in less fat. Excessive body fat detracts from the opposite fitness components, reduces performance, detracts from appearance, and negatively affects your health.

Factors like speed, agility, muscle power, eye-hand coordination, and eye-foot coordination are classified as components of “motor” fitness. These factors most affect your athletic ability. Appropriate training can improve these factors within the bounds of your potential. a wise weight loss and fitness program seeks to enhance or maintain all the components of physical and motor fitness through sound, progressive, mission specific physical training.

Principles of Exercise

Adherence to certain basic exercise principles is vital for developing an efficient program. equivalent principles of exercise apply to everyone in the least levels of physical training, from the Olympic-caliber athlete to the weekend jogger.

These basic principles of exercise must be followed.


To achieve a training effect, you want to exercise often. you ought to exercise each of the primary four fitness components a minimum of 3 times every week. Infrequent exercise can do more harm than good. Regularity is additionally important in resting, sleeping, and following a wise diet.


The intensity (how hard) and/or duration (how long) of exercise must gradually increase to enhance the extent of fitness.


To be effective, a program should include activities that address all the fitness components, since overemphasizing anybody of them may hurt the others.


Providing a spread of activities reduces boredom and increases motivation and progress.


Training must be geared toward specific goals. for instance, people become better runners if their training emphasizes running. Although swimming is great exercise, it doesn’t improve a 2-mile-run time the maximum amount as a running program does.


A hard day of coaching for a given component of fitness should be followed by a neater training day or day of rest for that component and/or muscle group(s) to assist permit recovery. differently to permit recovery is to alternate the muscle groups exercised every other day, especially when training for strength and/or muscle endurance.


The workload of every exercise session must exceed the traditional demands placed on the body so as to cause a training effect.